The White Whale is largely based off of Moby Dick from the book of the same name, being a large white whale resembling a sperm whale that the Captain hates.
Captain Boomer is a reference to the character Captain Boomer from Moby Dick, a captain of another ship besides the Pequod who has also encountered Moby Dick. In comparison to the book, Captain Boomer acts more like the character Captain Ahab. However, at the end, the White Whale saves the Captain, while Moby Dick kills Captain Ahab.
The Ship itself is a reference to the book, Moby Dick, bearing the same name as the ship in the book.
The S.S. Pequod is also a reference to the Titanic, being a large ship that rams into an iceberg, causing it to sink.
S.O.S Island was released in 2012, exactly 100 years after the Titanic sank.
The release of this island fell ironically close to the date of the Costa Concordia incident, in which a large cruise ship did in fact sink, with several fatalities.
Four characters in the Island have the same names as some characters in the book Moby Dick. They are:
Ishmael, the whale lover, has the same name as the main character in the book Moby Dick.
The ballroom singer (Starbuck) has the same name as the chief mate of the Pequod in the book Moby Dick.
The mechanic of the ship, Stubb, has the same name as the second mate in the book Moby Dick.
The cook's name is Flask, which in the book Moby Dick is the name of the third mate of the ship.
The Common Room (Daggoo's Fish Market) on this Island is named after one of the main harpooners in the book Moby Dick.